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[Ebook PDF] Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, 9th Edition
This is the eBook of the printed book and may not include any media, website access codes, or print supplements that may come packaged with the bound book.
Helps readers understand their own learning and apply the core concepts and principles of educational psychology to themselves as learners and in classrooms as teachers. Educational Psychology: Developing Learners is known for its exceptionally clear and engaging writing, its in-depth focus on learning, and its extensive concrete applications. The text’s unique approach helps students understand concepts by examining their own learning and then showing them how to apply these concepts as teachers. The text moves seamlessly between theory and applications, features the most extensive and integrated coverage of diversity, contexts of learning, and neuropsychology and brain development. It also includes innumerable concrete examples and artifacts to help readers connect educational psychology to real children and classrooms.
1 Teaching and Educational Psychology 2
Part I Development and Diversity
2 Cognitive and Linguistic Development 20
3 Personal and Social Development 56
4 Group Differences 96
5 Individual Differences and Special Educational Needs 128
Part II Learning and Motivation
6 Learning, Cognition, and Memory 170
7 Complex Cognitive Processes 212
8 Learning and Cognition in Context 248
9 Behaviorist Views of Learning 288
10 Social Cognitive Views of Learning 323
11 Motivation and Affect 358
Part III Classroom Strategies
12 Instructional Strategies 412
13 Creating a Productive Learning Environment 456
14 Classroom Assessment Strategies 496
15 Summarizing Students’ Achievements and Abilities 540
Appendix A: Describing Associations with Correlation Coefficients A-1
Appendix B: Determining Reliability and Predictive Validity B-1
Appendix C: Matching Book and My EdLab Content to the Praxis® Principles of Learning
and Teaching Tests C-1
New to this Edition
In this ninth edition of Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, I’m pleased to welcome my fellow educational psychologists Eric and Lynley Anderman as coauthors. More specifically, Eric and
Lynley have overhauled Chapter 11 and also brought their perspectives to Chapters 4, 5, 10, and 13.
Many features that have made previous editions of the book so popular with instructors and students remain in this edition, including a conversational writing style, Experiencing Firsthand features, organizational tables and diagrams, and an ongoing emphasis on classroom applications.
Yet there are also significant changes. As always, all 15 chapters have been updated to reflect recent advances in research, theory, and classroom practices. Perhaps even more importantly, the greatly
enhanced etext format has enabled us to make the book a truly interactive one in which—with quick clicks on hotlinks within each chapter—readers can regularly apply what they’re learning to actual and hypothetical classroom scenarios and problems. Interactive features include Self-Check Quizzes, Application Exercises, and case study analyses in the Licensure Exam activities; all of these features ask readers to respond to either open-ended or multiple-choice questions, and then give readers immediate feedback about their responses. Such features, along with many hotlinked Video Examples and Video Explanations—the latter of which target concepts and principles that students in educational psychology classes sometimes struggle to understand and apply—make the book a truly multimedia learning experience.
More specific additions and changes to this edition include the following:
• Chapter 1: New heading to give greater visibility to mixed-methods research; new discussion of principles (in addition to theories) in the section “From Research to Practice.”
• Chapter 2: Expanded discussion of Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological systems theory, with a new Figure 2.1 depicting the various layers of environmental influence proposed by Bronfenbrenner; updated discussion of physical development (in a hotlinked Content Extension feature); hotlinked Video Explanation showing various basic brain structures and their key roles; two hotlinked Video Explanations illustrating certain concepts in Vygotsky’s theory (e.g., cognitive tools, zone of proximal development).
• Chapter 3: Addition of a fourth important role of peers in children’s development (i.e., to teach new skills, such as computer programming or skateboarding techniques); replacement of the term peer pressure with the broader term peer contagion, in line with current thinking about the nature of peer influences; expanded discussion of popularity and social isolation; broadened discussion of diversity in moral development to include six different dimensions that moral reasoning and behavior might encompass.
• Chapter 4: Expanded discussion of distinctions between ethnic and racial groups; expanded discussions of students who speak languages other than English at home and of cultural differences in conceptions of time; discussion of increasing expectations for students to use technology at home and the challenges that such expectations impose on children in low-income families; expanded discussion of possible strategies for assisting homeless students.
• Chapter 5: New Experiencing Firsthand exercise related to fluid versus crystallized intelligence; updated critical examination of different theoretical conceptions of intelligence and measurement of intelligence; discussion of noncognitive contributors to intelligence; expanded discussions of how certain widely advocated strategies have little or no research support and thus are questionable practices at best (see the sections “Do Students Have Distinct Learning Styles?” and “Does It Make Sense to Teach to Students’ ‘Right Brains’ or ‘Left Brains’?”); expanded discussion of advantages versus drawbacks of inclusion as a general approach to working with students who have special educational needs.
• Chapter 6: Two hot linked Video Explanations regarding the nature of human memory; addition of executive function as a key term (because this term has increasingly been appearing in practitioner-oriented literature); new discussion of the brain’s need for some mental downtime during the school day; discussion of reconsolidation as a possible reason for forgetting or, more accurately, misremembering.
• Chapter 7: New discussion of self-reflection as a strategy for enhancing metacognitive awareness; new section “Metacognitive Strategies in the Digital Age”; expanded discussion of epistemic beliefs; expanded discussion of critical thinking.
• Chapter 8: Revision of the discussion of situated learning and situation cognition to encompass two somewhat different meanings that various theorists have ascribed to these terms; greater visibility given to Vygotsky’s and Bronfenbrenner’s theories as foundations for the contextual perspectives described in the chapter (with a new hot linked Video Explanation regarding Vygotsky’s theory); new example of culturally relevant practice in teaching math; greater attention to how literacy and various content domains are interdependent, especially as reflected in a new hot linked Application Exercise.
• Chapter 9: Five hot linked Video Explanations that explain and illustrate certain behaviorist ideas and applications (e.g., negative reinforcement versus punishment, use of functional analysis to address chronic behavior problems); content of the previous edition’s section “Strengths and Potential Limitations of Behaviorist Approaches” now integrated into the section “Strategies for Encouraging Productive Behaviors”; revision of section on classical conditioning to encompass the idea that the association between the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) and unconditioned response (UCR) might have been acquired at an earlier time (a footnote introduces the concept of higher-order conditioning for readers who might want to pursue this idea further); revision of discussion of time-out to be more in line with current practices; new bullet on using technology to reinforce desirable behaviors and achievements.
• Chapter 10: Expanded discussion of teacher efficacy; addition of proximal goal as a key term in this chapter, with discussion of the benefits of setting proximal goals, within the contexts of self-efficacy and self-regulation; new table comparing various self-related concepts.
• Chapter 11: Reorganization of sections, with distinctions among different perspectives on the roles of “needs” in motivation; discussion of self-determination theory as both a cognitively and needs-based theory of motivation; addition of the distinction between mastery approach goals and mastery-avoidance goals; new section on mindsets; new concluding section on motivating students in any environment.
• Chapter 12: Revision of opening case study to incorporate uses of digital technology and the Internet; more extensive coverage of Common Core, with an effort to address some common misconceptions (and help alleviate widespread concerns) about these standards; addition of Next Generation Science Standards to the discussion of standards; new Figure 12.3 to illustrate how content-area standards can be integrated into a backward-design approach to instructional planning; new hot linked Application Exercises in which readers apply what they have learned about Common Core and backward design; new discussion of My Science Tutor (including two screenshots) as an example of an instructional website in which students interact with a virtual tutor via spoken language; expanded discussion of discovery
and inquiry activities.
• Chapter 13: Expanded discussion of planning activities that keep students on task as a means of preventing misbehavior; updated use of terminology in discussions of schoolwide positive behavioral supports and interventions; inclusion of additional strategies for communicating with parents; expanded discussion of dealing with misbehaviors; modification of the previous edition’s discussion of gang-related problems.
• Chapter 14: Two new hot linked Video Explanations regarding formative versus summative assessments and rubric design; new rubric in the text that better illustrates good rubric design (Figure 14.5); discussion of backward design as an essential tool in planning assessments (with Figure 12.3 being repeated as Figure 14.6); integration of discussions of digital technologies (which were previously in a separate section near the end of the chapter) into discussions of formative assessment and formal paper–pencil assessments; new discussion of how students might cheat via digital technologies.• Chapter 15: Expansion of section on criterion-referenced scores, with a new discussion of problems associated with combining multiple criterion-referenced scores (e.g., obtained with a rubric) into a single overall score; expanded discussion of the pros and cons of value-added assessment as a means of evaluating teacher effectiveness.