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Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering Systems, 5th Edition
Author: Robert Houghtalen (Author), A. Osman Akan (Author), Ned Hwang (Author)
Understanding Hydraulics: The Design, Analysis, and Engineering of Hydraulic Systems
Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering Systems bridges the gap between fundamental principles and techniques applied to the design and analysis of hydraulic engineering systems. An extension of fluid mechanics, hydraulics is often more difficult to understand, and experience shows that many engineering students have trouble solving practical problems in hydraulics. The book builds on readers’ problem solving skills by presenting various problem and solution scenarios throughout including effective design procedures, equations, tables and graphs, and helpful computer software.
The first half of the Fifth Edition discusses the fundamentals of fluid statics, fluid dynamics, and pipe flow, giving readers practical insight on water flow and pipe design. The latter half dives into water flow and hydraulic systems design, covering some of the most common hydraulic structures such as wells, dams, spillways, culverts, and stilling basins. The book ends with four ancillary topics: measurements, model studies, hydrology for hydraulic design and statistical methods in hydrology, as well as common techniques for obtaining hydraulic design flows.
This book provides a fundamental treatment of engineering hydraulics. It is primarily intended to serve as a textbook for undergraduate engineering students. However, it will serve as a very useful desk reference for practicing engineers who want to review basic principles and their applications in hydraulic engineering systems.
Engineering hydraulics is an extension of fluid mechanics in which many empirical relationships are applied and simplifying assumptions made to achieve practical engineering solutions. Experience has shown that many engineering students, possibly well versed in basic fluid mechanics, have trouble solving practical problems in hydraulics. This book is intended to bridge the gap between fundamental principles and the techniques applied to the design and analysis of hydraulic engineering systems. As such, the reader is exposed to many problems commonly encountered in practice and various solution scenarios including effective design procedures, equations, graphs/tables, and computer software that can be used to advantage.
This book contains twelve chapters. The first five chapters cover the fundamentals of fluid statics, fluid dynamics, and pipe flow. The first chapter discusses fundamental properties of water as a fluid. In this chapter, the basic differences between the SI system (Le Système International d’Unitès) and British units are discussed. The second chapter presents the concepts of water pressure and pressure forces on surfaces in contact with liquids. Chapter 3 introduces the basic principles of water flow in pipes. These principles are applied to the practical problems of pipelines and pipe networks in Chapter 4 with an emphasis on hydraulic systems. Chapter 5 discusses the theory, analysis, and design aspects of water pumps. The systems approach is again emphasized with detailed instruction on pump analysis within pipelines, branching pipe systems, and pipe networks, as well as pump selection and design considerations.
The next three chapters cover open channel flow, ground water, and the design of various hydraulic structures. Water flow in open channels is presented in Chapter 6. Detailed discussions of uniform flow (normal depth), rapidly varied flow (hydraulic jumps), and gradually varied flow (classifications and water surface profiles) are included, along with open channel design. The hydraulics of wells and seepage problems are two key topics in Chapter 7 on ground water. Well hydraulics includes coverage of equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions in confined and unconfined aquifers. Chapter 8 introduces some of the most common hydraulic structures such as dams, weirs, spillways, culverts, and stilling basins. Functionality, hydraulic principles, practical considerations, and design procedures are provided.
The book ends with four ancillary topics: measurements, model studies, hydrology for hydraulic design, and statistical methods in hydrology. Chapter 9 provides information on the measurement of water pressure, velocity, and discharge in pipes and open channels. The proper use of scaled models is an essential part of hydraulic engineering. As such, the use of hydraulic models and the laws of engineering similitude are covered in Chapter 10. Flow rates are required for the design of all hydraulic structures; many are obtained using the principles of hydrology. The last two chapters introduce common techniques used for obtaining hydrologic design flows. Deterministic procedures are covered in Chapter 11 and statistical methods are covered in Chapter 12. In addition, the design of stormwater collection, transport, and storage systems (routing) is introduced in Chapter 11.
New to this Edition
Significant revisions have been made to this new edition based on feedback from practitioners, university professors, and book reviewers. These revisions include:
• More than half of the end-of-chapter problems provided in the book are new or revised from the previous edition. A solutions manual and a test/examination manual are available to university professors who adopt the book for their class.
• Topical PowerPoint slides are available to explain most of the major sections in the book and include active (classroom) learning exercises. The solutions manual, test manual, and topical PowerPoint slides can be obtained under the book’s instructor resources on the publisher’s website.
• Chapter 11 is completely revised to emphasize urban hydrology and the most widely used analysis techniques for stormwater management. In addition, there is a section on hydrologic modeling that describes the features of the HEC-HMS model and EPASWMM model. The use of these models is encouraged in some of the end-of-chapter problems.
• Chapter 9 includes weir equations for SI units to go along with BG counterparts.
• Chapter 7 includes an example problem on unsteady flow in unconfined aquifers.
• Chapter 6 includes a new section on open channel flow modeling, describes the features of the HEC-RAS model, and encourages the use of models in many of the end-of-chapter problems.
• Chapter 4 includes a new section on pipe network modeling, describes the features of the EPANET model, and encourages the use of models in many of the end-of-chapter problems. In addition, many clarifications to nomenclature and process have been made along with better solution explanations in Examples 4.4, 4.6, and 4.8
• Chapter 3 includes a more refined development of the momentum equation, a more elegant proof of the energy equation, and an updated diffusor loss equation.
• Chapter 2 includes new example problems to clarify the concepts of equal pressure surfaces and floatation stability.
• Chapter 1 now contains water property tables in both BG and SI units.
• Removal of errors and clarification of concepts have been enacted throughout this new edition. Many new and clarified figures have been added as well.
Chapters 11 and 12 (hydrology) in concert with earlier chapters on pipe flow and pumps will accommodate professors who teach hydrology in combination with hydraulics. For those professors who teach a separate hydraulics and hydrology class sequence, Chapters 1 through 6, 10, and 9 (first three sections) in some combination form a nice package for hydraulics. Chapters 11, 12, 7, 8, and 9 (last section) form a nice package for hydrology.