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Western Civilization: Volume I: To 1715, 11th Edition
Authors: Jackson J. Spielvogel (Author)
Bestselling author Jackson Spielvogel has helped over 1 million students learn about the present by exploring the past. His engaging narrative weaves the political, economic, social, religious, intellectual, cultural and military aspects of history into a gripping story that is as memorable as it is instructive. Updated to reflect current scholarship, WESTERN CIVILIZATION, 11th Edition features excerpts of more than 250 primary sources that enliven the past while introducing students to the source material of historical scholarship. Detailed maps and vivid photographs bring chapter concepts to life. Accessible to any learning style, the text includes focus and critical thinking questions, primary source features with assignable questions and end-of-chapter study aids, while MindTap digital learning solution equips students with a wealth of on-the-go study tools.
During a visit to Great Britain, where he studied as a
young man, Mohandas Gandhi, the leader of the effort to liberate India from British colonial rule, was asked what he thought of Western civilization. “I think it would be a good idea,” he replied. Gandhi’s response was as correct as it was clever.
Western civilization has led to great problems as well as great accomplishments, but it remains a good idea. And any complete understanding of today’s world must take into account the meaning of Western civilization and the role Western civilization has played in history. Despite modern progress, we still greatly reflect our religious traditions, our political systems and theories, our economic and social structures, and our cultural heritage. I have written this history of Western civilization to assist a new generation of students in learning more about the past that has helped create them and the world in which they live.
At the same time, for the eleventh edition, as in the tenth, I have added new material on world history to show the impact other parts of the world have made on the West. Certainly, the ongoing struggle with terrorists since 2001 has made clear the intricate relationship between the West and the rest of the world. It is important then to show not only how Western civilization has affected the rest of the world but also how it has been influenced and even defined since its beginnings by contacts with other peoples around the world.
Another of my goals was to write a well-balanced work in which the political, economic, social, religious, intellectual, cultural, and military aspects of Western civilization have been integrated into a chronologically ordered synthesis. I have been especially aware of the need to integrate the latest research on social history and women’s history into each chapter of the book rather than isolating it either in lengthy topical chapters, which confuse the student by interrupting the chronological narrative, or in separate sections that appear at periodic intervals between chapters.
Another purpose in writing this history of Western civilization has been to put the story back in history. That story is an exciting one, yet many textbooks fail to capture the imagination of their readers. Narrative history effectively transmits the knowledge of the past and is the form that best aids remembrance. At the same time, I have not overlooked the need for the kind of historical analysis that makes students aware that historians often disagree on their interpretations of the past.
Features of the Text
To enliven the past and to let readers see for themselves the materials that historians use to create their pictures of the past, I have included in each chapter primary sources (Historical Voices) that are keyed to the discussion in the text. The documents include examples of the religious, artistic, intellectual, social, economic, and political aspects of Western life. Such varied sources as a Renaissance banquet menu, a debate in the Reformation era, the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen in the French Revolution, and letters exchanged between a woman and her fiancé on the battle front in World War I all reveal in vivid fashion what Western civilization meant to the individual men and women who shaped it by their activities. I have included a focus question at the beginning of each Historical Voices presentation to help students in analyzing the documents.
To help students examine how and why historians differ in their interpretation of specific topics, new historiographical sections were introduced in the ninth edition. Examples include “Was There a United Kingdom of Israel?”; “Was There a Renaissance for Women?”; “Was There an Agricultural Revolution?”; “The Retreat from Democracy: Did Europe Have Totalitarian States?”; and “Why Did the Soviet Union
Collapse?” Each of these sections is now preceded by the heading Historians Debate to make students more aware of the interpretive nature of history.
An additional feature that began in the seventh edition is Images of Everyday Life, which combines two or more illustrations with a lengthy caption to provide insight into various aspects of social life and includes such topics as “Children in the Roman World,” “Family and Marriage in Renaissance Italy,” “Women and the Enlightenment Salon,” and “Political Cartoons: Attacks on the King.” Movies & History, which appears in a brief format, can be found in eighteen chapters; the features reference twenty-two films.
Each chapter has an introduction and illustrated chapter summary to help maintain the continuity of the narrative and to provide a synthesis of important themes. Anecdotes in the chapter introductions dramatically convey the major theme or themes of each chapter. Detailed chronologies reinforce the events discussed in the text, and a Chapter Timeline at the end of each chapter enables students to review at a glance the chief developments of an era. Some of the timelines also show parallel developments in different cultures or nations. Beginning with the eighth edition, a new format was added at the end
of each chapter. The Chapter Summary is illustrated with thumbnail images of chapter illustrations and combined with the Chapter Timeline. A Chapter Review assists students in studying the chapter. This review includes Upon Reflection essay questions and a list of Key Terms from the chapter. The Suggestions for Further Reading at the end of each chapter has been thoroughly updated for this new edition and is organized under subheadings to make it more useful.
Updated maps and extensive illustrations serve to deepen the reader’s understanding of the text. Detailed map captions are designed to enrich students’ awareness of the importance of geography to history, and numerous spot maps enable readers to see at a glance the region or subject being discussed in the text. Map captions also include a map question to guide students’ reading of the map. To facilitate understanding of cultural movements, images of artistic works discussed in the text are placed near the discussions. Throughout the text, image captions have been revised and expanded to further students’
understanding of the past. New to this edition, many images now include critical thinking questions to guide students in analyzing their significance. Chapter outlines and focus questions at the beginning of each chapter give students a useful overview and guide them to the main subjects of each chapter.
The section Connections to Today at the beginning of each chapter is intended to help students appreciate the relevance of history by asking them to draw connections between the past and present.
The focus questions are then repeated at the beginning of each major section in the chapter. A glossary of important terms (boldfaced in the text when they are introduced and defined) is provided at the back of the book to maximize reader comprehension. A guide to pronunciation is provided in the text in parentheses following the first mention of a complex name or term, and Chapter Notes appear at the end of each chapter.
New to This Edition
While preparing the revision of Western Civilization, I reexamined the entire book and analyzed the comments and reviews of many colleagues who have found the book to be a useful instrument for introducing their students to the history of Western civilization. In preparing the eleventh edition, I sought to build on the strengths of the first ten editions and, above all, to maintain the balance, synthesis, and narrative qualities that characterized those editions. In addition to revising Connections to Today questions and adding new focus questions, to keep up with the ever-growing body of historical scholarship, new or
revised material has been added throughout the book on the following topics:
Chapter 1 Australopithecines; Neanderthals; domestication of animals; Hatshepsut; new document, “The Instructions of Shuruppag”; new Map 1.2 The Emergence of Civilizations Around the World.
Chapter 2 the Hebrew Psalms; the Phoenicians.
Chapter 3 Minoan Crete; Greece in a Dark Age; “hoplite revolution”; the reforms of Solon, Cleisthenes, and Pericles; the pre-Socratics; the Greek Olympics; Greek slavery.
Chapter 4 Philip II’s military reforms; Alexander’s early life; new document, “The Wrath of Alexander.”
Chapter 5 the Twelve Tables; Roman warfare; Roman religion; slavery in the Roman world; Roman women; Tiberius Gracchus.
Chapter 6 Augustus; the Augustan social order; new document, “The Resistance to Rome: The Exhortations of Galgacus”; Trier, in Rome in Germany photo caption; Romanization and cities; changes in population issues in late second century c.e.; the crises in the third century.
Chapter 7 Christology; the emperor Constantine; Augustine of Hippo; the Byzantine Empire; the rise of Islam.
Chapter 8 the government of Charlemagne; new document, “Charlemagne’s Goal of Learning”; the Carolingian Renaissance; Louis the Pious; Vikings as traders; the Byzantine Empire; the expansion of Islam.
Chapter 9 the new agriculture; Gothic cathedrals.
Chapter 10 women in the High Middle Ages; Bernard and the humanization of Christ; the pilgrimage.
Chapter 11 the Black Death in North Africa; replaced use of terms feminism and anti-Semitism; shortened discussion of the Hundred Year’ War; Venice’s trade with the Muslim world.
Chapter 12 new document, “The Problems of Renaissance City Governments”; male homosexuality in the Renaissance; female humanists; Northern High Renaissance art.
Chapter 13 Erasmus; the break between Luther and Erasmus; new section, “Response to the Wars of Religion: Michel de Montaigne.”
Chapter 14 Peru and the Incan conquest; the mita labor system; sugar production and its impact as a global driver; slavery; the British East India Company; Christian missionaries in Japan.
Chapter 15 Louis XIV; Peter the Great; Oliver Cromwell.
Chapter 16 Newton and religion; Galileo; medicine; Boyle and air; scientific societies.
Chapter 17 Voltaire; women in the Enlightenment; innovations in art and architecture; “Grub Street” writers.
Chapter 18 King Frederick William I of Prussia; King Frederick II of Prussia; the Seven Years’ War.
Chapter 19 the impact of the American Revolution on Europeans; the Tennis Court Oath; the role of women in the French Revolution; new document, “Disaster in Russia.”
Chapter 20 revolt of silk workers of Lyon; the Sadler report.
Chapter 21 Metternich; new document: “The Voice of Utopian Socialism”; Owen’s New Lanark model industrial community; the 1848 revolution in the Austrian Empire; Romanticism, the work of Turner.
Chapter 22 the Crimean War; Bismarck; the Victorian Age.
Chapter 23 re-organized section 23-2 to become new sections 23-2 “Urbanization and Population Movements” and 23-3 “The Emergence of a Mass Society”; German industrial leadership; the Second Industrial Revolution and communications; population growth in the nineteenth century; emigration; urbanization; mass consumption; Germany; Russia.
Chapter 24 imperialism; J. A. Hobson’s Imperialism; King “Leopold’s reign of terror in Central Africa; ant-Western thought in the colonies after World War I; the Bismarckian system of alliances.
Chapter 25 the Russian revolution; the role of Lenin; women working in factories; women’s opposition to the war; Britain’s decision to go to war; divided subsection entitled “The Social Impact of the War” into two subsections entitled “The Social Impact of the War” and “New Roles for Women,” with new material.
Chapter 26 the depression in the United States; new document, “Daily Life in the Collective Farms”; revised Map 26.2 Territory Gained by Italy; fear of communism in Europe and specifically Germany; Carl Jung.
Chapter 27 Asian war before Pearl Harbor, especially China and Japan; the role of Spain; context of the American decision to drop atomic bombs on Japan.
Chapter 28 the Marshall Plan; the Algerian War; the Vietnam War; Americanization and the Cold War; new document, “The Berlin Air Lift.”
Chapter 29 Margaret Thatcher; West German politics; changes in Italy; the Second Vietnam War; new document, “The Current Malaise.”
Chapter 30 new document, “Emmanuel Macron and European Sovereignty”; Russia; Poland; Germany; Great Britain; France; Italy; the United States; Canada; new section on the United States; terrorism; new section, “The Great Recession”; Greece; the women’s movement; the European Union. The enthusiastic response to the primary sources (Historical Voices) led me to evaluate the content of each document carefully and add new documents throughout the text. The feature Opposing Viewpoints, which was introduced in the seventh edition, presents a comparison of two or three primary sources in order to facilitate student analysis of historical documents.
This feature now appears in almost every chapter and includes such topics as “The Great Flood: Two Versions,” “The Black Death: Contemporary Views,” “A New Heaven: Faith Versus
Reason,” “The Response to Revolution,” and “Czechoslovakia, 1968: Two Faces of Communism.” Focus questions are included to help students evaluate the documents.
Introduced in the tenth edition was a feature entitled Global Perspectives, which reinforces the relationship between the West and other parts of the world. This new feature, which is found in twenty chapters, includes such topics as “The Stele in the Ancient World,” “Women in the Roman and Han Empires,” “Medieval Monastic Life in West and East,” “Revolution and Revolt in France and China,” “West and East: Textile Factory Work,” and “The New Global Economy: Fast Fashion.”
Because courses in Western civilization at American and Canadian colleges and universities follow different chronological divisions, the text is available in both one-volume and twovolume versions to fit the needs of instructors. Teaching and learning ancillaries include the following.